Allow me to help and get you pointed in the right direction who can check your sales tax payment status in QuickBooks Online.
If you're paying the sales tax using the E-Pay feature in QuickBooks Online, I'd suggest reaching out to our QuickBooks Online Support. Agents have the necessary tools to check and verify the payment status.
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If you're not using the E-pay, then it would be best to contact your State agency to confirm if the payment went through. I'm including this article for your reference: E-filing and payments for Sales tax.