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QuickBooks Encyclopedia – Basic Accounting Definitions

 

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This series, the QuickBooks Encyclopedia, is designed for everyone -- those who are brand new to QuickBooks as well as those needing a quick reference.

 

Here we cover basic accounting terms and when they're used in QuickBooks. Luckily, QuickBooks doesn’t require you to know complex accounting concepts. At the same time, it's good to have a basic understanding of what goes on during the bookkeeping process.

 

Accounting terms, while precise in their meaning, are not universally applicable in all cases. How and when to apply these principles depends on the context. As such, it's always wise to reach out to your accountant if you're going beyond the basics.

 

To navigate this resource, click one of the alphabetical jump links below or hit Ctrl+F /Control+F in your browser to search for a specific term. For QuickBooks feature and function definitions, check out "QuickBooks Encyclopedia - Essential QuickBooks Online Definitions."  

 

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

  

A

 

Accrual Method Accounting

 

The Simple Definition: An accounting method that reports money from completed transactions and in progress, yet-to-be-completed transactions.

 

*When you first start your business, you pick an accounting method and stick with it – changing methods generally requires help from an accounting professional.

 

 

Textbook Definition: With the accrual method, income and expenses are recorded and reported when they’re billed and earned, regardless of whether or not the money has been received. This includes accounts payable and accounts receivable transactions (as opposed to the cash method).

 

The upside to using the accrual method is it gives small business owners a more realistic idea of their income and expenses during a given period of time. This can provide a better overall picture of how your business is doing and where it’s headed in the future.

 

One drawback to the accrual method is that it can factor income you don’t actually have, on hand or in the bank – your books may report large amounts of revenue based on several in-progress invoices, even if your bank account is empty.

 

 

Term in use: My business is set up for Accrual Method accounting. I just received $100 from an invoice payment, but I haven’t deposited it into the bank. I also have $100 in unpaid invoices.

If I run a Profit and Loss Report, I am will see all $200 - the money I’ve received and anticipate receiving.

 

(Also see Cash Method Accounting

 

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Accounts Receivable (A/R)

 

The Simple Definition: Income owed to your business, but has not yet been received. Accounts Receivable is referred to as A/R. 

 

 

Textbook Definition: Accounts Receivable is the record of money owed to your business for goods or services. Generally, this refers to open invoices you haven't received payment for, yet. Even though the word "accounts" is plural, QuickBooks uses a single Accounts Receivable account in the Chart of Accounts to track all outstanding payments.

 

 

Term in use: I sent 10 invoices last week. Folks owe me money! These transactions are still pending. If I were to enter these transactions into QuickBooks, they'd be part of my Accounts Receivable.

 

(Also see Accounts Payable (A/P)

 

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Accounts Payable (A/P)

 

The Simple Definition: Expenses that you owe, but have not yet paid. Accounts Payable is often referred to as A/P.

 

 

Textbook Definition: Accounts Payable is the record of your business' pending/outstanding bills, essentially, the money you owe your vendors for goods or services. The Accounts Payable account tracks how much money you still owe your vendors. It's used whenever you generate a bill or vendor/supplier credit transaction. 

 

 

Term in use: Last month, I purchased three tons of unroasted coffee beans for my shop and now have several unpaid bills sitting in my office. These transactions are still pending. If I were to enter these expenses into QuickBooks, they’d be part of my Accounts Payable.

(Also see Accounts Receivable (A/R)

 

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Assets

 

The Simple Definition: Assets are tangible and intangible items you own and use for business that can be converted into cash. Assets are generally divided up into fixed (long-term use) and current (short-term use) assets.

 

 

Textbook Definition: An asset is a tangible resource that belongs to your business that retains value after a year or more. In terms of categorizing assets into accounts...

  • Fixed assets (e.g. tangible assets, property, equipment) – these are assets held with the intention of being used for the purpose of producing or providing goods or services. Fixed assets are not held for sale in the normal course of business. A fixed asset account is used to track purchases of tangible, depreciable property that will have a useful life longer than one year, such as equipment or furniture.

  • Current asset (a.k.a other current assets) - these are assets that are likely to be converted to cash or used up within one year. This includes assets like petty cash, notes receivable due within a year, prepaid expenses (prepayments), and security deposits. The QuickBooks Inventory Asset and the Undeposited Funds account are examples of Current Asset accounts. 

  • Other assets (non-current asset) - these are intangible assets that have a life of more than one year. Assets that are not fixed or current, such as long-term notes receivable, belong in this category. 

 

 

Term in use: My business just bought a new pizza delivery truck for work. The truck is a fixed asset. What about the dough tossing machine used to make the pizza dough? This is also a fixed asset. The cash stuffed in the desk drawer to help pay for one-off expenses (i.e. petty cash)? That’s a current asset.

 

(Also see Liabilities

 

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C

 

Cash Flow

 

The Simple Definition: The movement of cash in and out of your business.

 

 

Textbook Definition: Cash inflows are your sources of income while cash outflows are your expenses. For small businesses, positive cash flow is the goal. You want to generate more money than you’re spending. Many businesses will go through periods of negative cash flow due to seasonality or early investment in assets for the business.

 

 

Term in use: You own a pie shop (yum). Income from the sale of pies is cash inflow. When you buy ingredients to make the pies, these expenses create a cash outflow.

 

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Cash on Hand/Petty Cash

 

The Simple Definition: Cash you use for small, “one-off” purchases for your business.

 

 

Textbook Definition: Petty cash is the convenient supply of cash you use to make immediate payments for goods and services. For example, instead of writing a check for a small $1.50 purchase for postage, you can pay the postman directly with your petty cash box.

 

You should designate one person at your business to control and track your petty cash. In QuickBooks, you have to “deposit” funds into your Petty Cash/Cash on Hand account before you can make a withdrawal so the account balances to $0. 

 

 

Term in use: The cash reserve I keep in the safe to pay for printer paper purchased outside our normal ordering cycle is considered Petty Cash/ Cash on Hand.

 

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Cash Method Accounting

 

The Simple Definition: An accounting method that only reports money you’ve actually received or expenses you’ve already paid. This method does not report transactions in-progress (income or expenses).

 

*When you first start your business, you pick an accounting method and stick with it – changing methods generally requires help from an accounting professional.

 

 

Textbook Definition: With the cash basis of accounting, you record income as it’s received and expenses as they’re paid. This method does not take into account any accounts receivable or accounts payable.

 

Many small business owners choose cash method accounting because it’s a simpler bookkeeping process. It’s easier to track money as it moves in and out of your bank accounts and there’s no need to record receivables or payables. 

 

One downside to the cash method is its limited view of your overall finances. Since it doesn’t account for incoming revenue or outgoing expenses, it can lead you to believe you’re having a very high or low cash-flow month.  In reality, high cash flow may be the result of last month’s work

 

 

Term in use: My business is set up for Cash Method accounting. I just received $100 from an invoice that I deposited into the bank. I have $100 worth of unpaid invoices. If I run a Profit and Loss Report, I will only see the $100 payment I received and deposited, not the pending payment. 

 

(Also see Accrual Method Accounting

 

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Cost of Goods Sold (aka COGS, Cost of Sales, or COS)

 

The Simple Definition: The costs associated with producing a good or service.

 

 

Textbook Definition: Costs directly related to producing a good or service for sale. There’s a direct relationship between these costs and your revenue. If your company sells a product, your cost of goods sold includes the materials, labor, and other expenses incurred to make and sell the product.

 

By contrast, while they may facilitate the production of a good or service, expenses such as rent, marketing, or advertising are considered indirect and should not be posted to the Cost of Goods Sold account.

 

 

Term in use: If you sell a ceramic cup for $5 and it costs you $2 to produce (materials and labor), the cost of goods sold is $2

(i.e. [Revenue from the sale of the cup] – [Cost to produce the cup/COGS] = actual revenue) 

 

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D

 

Depreciation

 

The Simple Definition: The declining loss of value to an asset resulting from various factors such as normal wear and tear and the length of ownership.

 

 

Textbook Definition: Most businesses rely on physical assets to stay operational. Computers, cars, office equipment, and machinery all eventually lose value over time. Quantifying that loss is known as depreciation, the portion of an asset’s cost that is “consumed.” This attributes a portion of the profits from the physical asset to the lost value due to use if the asset were to be sold.

 

When calculating depreciation, there are many factors that must be taken into consideration, such as the current trade-in value, any down payment or outstanding fees, and so on. You'll need to consult with your accountant on how to account for these variables.

 

 

Term in use: My guitar has seen better days. I bought it 5 years ago for my side-gig playing music at a local lounge. Its value has declined significantly and I could never sell it back for the purchase price – that loss is its depreciation.

 

(Also see Assets

 

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E

 

Equity

 

The Simple Definition: The total value of your business after you’ve subtracted what you owe [“liabilities”] from what you own [“assets”].

 

 

Textbook Definition: Equity is the net worth of a business. It represents the difference between your liabilities and assets. If you sold all your assets today and paid off all outstanding liabilities with the money received from the sale of your assets, the remaining money is your equity. Of course, you don't need to actually sell your assets to have equity. Your equity represents the value of your business, and thus its health.

 

Equity comes from two primary sources: (1) money invested in your company and (2) profits and losses from the business.

 

An Owner's Equity account includes capital investments and drawings. An owner can also take money out of the business. Such withdrawals, called Owner's Draws, reduce the company's overall equity.

 

 

Term in use: I have $5000 worth of assets (my equipment and everything else I use for my business) and a $2000 loan from the bank. This month I have no A/R or A/P and I’ve made $1000 in income. Right now, my total current equity is $4000 ($5000 – 2000 + 1000 = $4000). 

 

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Expense

 

The Simple Definition: Costs associated with business operations, like bills and utilities.

 

 

Textbook Definition: Expense accounts are used to track and categorize what your company is spending. An "Other Expense" account is used for money spent on things outside normal business operations, such as corporate income taxes.

 

 

Term in use: The money you paid for your new Google Pixel (for work, of course) is an asset, but the phone bill and energy utility used to charge the phone are expenses to your business.

 

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I

 

Income (Revenue)

 

The Simple Definition: Money you earn from sales. 

 

 

Textbook Definition: Money earned from the sale of your products or services is recorded as income.  You track this money using income accountsYour company may have one or several income accounts depending on the financial data you need to track and analyze. 

 

Another category of income is "Other Income," or income generated from the sale of a product or service outside your normal operations. Interest Income is an example of an Other Income account type.

 

 

Term in use: The money you collect from selling food and catering services (via invoices or sales receipts) is considered income.

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L

 

Liabilities

 

The Simple Definition: The money you currently owe to others – i.e. debts.

 

 

Textbook Definition: Liabilities are your company's debts. In a sense, they represent the credit extended to your business. Liabilities include bills you've received, the money you owe on credit cards, sales tax you owe the government, employee withholdings, and both short-term and long-term loans. QuickBooks Online distinguishes between two types of liabilities:

 

  • Current liabilities (Creditors in France) - Debts your company expects to pay within a year, such as bills, sales tax, payroll taxes, accrued or deferred salaries, and short-term loans.

  • Long-term liabilities (Non-current liability, Long-term creditors) - Debts that your company expects to pay off in more than one year, such as long-term loans and mortgages

 

 

Term in use: I took out a $5,000 loan to pay for new camera equipment which I use exclusively for my wedding photography gig. The loan represents a liability for my business (while camera equipment itself is an asset).

 

(Also see Assets

 

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O

 

Owner’s Equity

 

The Simple Definition: The cash and other assets an owner(s) has invested in their business.

 

 

Textbook Definition: Depending on the type of ownership (sole proprietor, partnership, LLC, S-corp or C-Corp), you must account for this type of equity in very specific ways. Learn more about the different types of owners equity on the QuickBooks Resource Center.

 

 

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Version history
Revision #:
10 of 10
Last update:
‎08-27-2018 10:58 PM
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